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SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2011
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

NOTE 1 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Basis of Presentation: The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of The Bank of Kentucky Financial Corporation (the “Company”) and its wholly owned subsidiary, The Bank of Kentucky (the “Bank”). Intercompany transactions are eliminated in consolidation.

 

Description of Business: The Company provides financial services through its subsidiary, which operates primarily in Boone, Campbell, Grant, Gallatin, Kenton and Pendleton counties in northern Kentucky and also in Greater Cincinnati, Ohio. Operations consist of generating commercial, mortgage and consumer loans and accepting deposits from customers. The loan portfolio is diversified and the ability of debtors to repay loans is not dependent upon any single industry. The majority of the institution’s loans are secured by specific items of collateral including business assets, real property and consumer assets.

 

Use of Estimates: To prepare financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, management makes estimates and assumptions based on available information. These estimates and assumptions affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and the disclosures provided, and future results could differ. The allowance for loan losses and the fair values of financial instruments are particularly subject to change.

 

Cash Flows: Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, amounts due from banks and federal funds sold. The Company reports net cash flows for customer loan and deposit transactions, interest-bearing balances with banks and short-term borrowings with maturities of 90 days or less.

 

Interest-Bearing Deposits in Other Financial Institutions: Interest-bearing deposits in other financial institutions mature within one year and are carried at cost.

 

Securities: Securities are classified as held-to-maturity and carried at amortized cost when management has the positive intent and ability to hold them to maturity. Securities are classified as available-for-sale when they might be sold before maturity. Available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value, with unrealized holding gains and losses reported in other comprehensive income, net of tax.

 

Interest income includes amortization of purchase premium or discount. Premiums and discounts on securities are amortized on the level-yield method without anticipating prepayments except for mortgage backed securities where prepayments are anticipated. Gains and losses on sales are based on the amortized cost of the security sold.

 

Management evaluates securities for other-than-temporary impairment (“OTTI”) at least on a quarterly basis, and more frequently when economic or market conditions warrant such an evaluation.

 

In determining OTTI, management considers many factors, including: (1) the length of time and the extent to which the fair value has been less than cost, (2) the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, (3) whether the market decline was affected by macroeconomic conditions and (4) whether the Company has the intent to sell the debt security or more likely than not will be required to sell the debt security before its anticipated recovery. The assessment of whether an other-than temporary decline exists involves a high degree of subjectivity and judgment and is based on the information available to management at a point in time.

   

When OTTI occurs, the amount of the OTTI recognized in earnings depends on whether an entity intends to sell the security or more likely than not will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis less any current-period credit loss. If an entity intends to sell or more likely than not will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis less any current-period credit loss, the OTTI shall be recognized in earnings equal to the entire difference between the investment’s amortized cost basis and its fair value at the balance sheet date. Otherwise, the OTTI shall be separated into the amount representing the credit loss and the amount related to all other factors. The amount of the total OTTI related to the credit loss is determined based on the present value of cash flows expected to be collected and is recognized in earnings. The amount of the total OTTI related to other factors shall be recognized in other comprehensive income, net of applicable taxes. The previous amortized cost basis less the OTTI recognized in earnings shall become the new amortized cost basis of the investment.

 

Loans Held For Sale: The Bank originates loans for sale to secondary market brokers. Loans held for sale are loans which have been closed and are awaiting delivery to these brokers. They are reported at the lower of cost or fair value, on an aggregate basis. Net unrealized losses, if any, are recorded as a valuation allowance and charged to earnings. Most loans are sold servicing released such that there would be no servicing asset recognized upon the sale.

 

Loans: Loans that management has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future or until maturity or payoff are reported at the principal balance outstanding, purchase premiums and discounts, deferred loan fees and costs, and an allowance for loan losses. Interest income is accrued on the unpaid principal balance. Loan origination fees, net of certain direct origination costs, are deferred and recognized in interest income using the level-yield method without anticipating prepayments.

 

Interest income on mortgage and commercial loans is discontinued at the time the loan is 90 days delinquent unless the loan is well-secured and in process of collection. Interest income is not reported when full loan repayment is in doubt, typically when the loan is impaired or payments are significantly past due. Past due status is based on the contractual terms of the loan.

 

All interest accrued but not received for loans placed on nonaccrual is reversed against interest income. Interest received on such loans is accounted for on cost-recovery method, until qualifying for return to accrual. Loans are returned to accrual status when all the principal and interest amounts contractually due are brought current and future payments are reasonably assured.

 

Troubled debt restructurings are separately identified for impairment disclosures and are measured at the present value of estimated future cash flows using the loan’s effective rate at inception. If a troubled debt restructuring is considered to be a collateral dependent loan, the loan is reported, net, at the fair value of the collateral. For troubled debt restructurings that subsequently default, the Company determines the amount of reserve in accordance with the accounting policy for the allowance for loan losses

 

If a partially charged-off loan has been restructured in a manner that is reasonably assured of repayment and performance according to prudently modified terms, and has sustained historical payment performance for a reasonable period of time prior to and/or after the restructuring, it may be returned to accrual status and is classified as a TDR loan. However, if the above conditions can not be reasonably met, the loan remains on non-accrual status.

 

Concentration of Credit Risk: Most of the Company’s business activity is with customers located within Northern Kentucky and the Cincinnati metropolitan area. Therefore, the Company’s exposure to credit risk is significantly affected by changes in the economy in this area.

   

Allowance for Loan Losses: The allowance for loan losses is a valuation allowance for probable incurred credit losses, increased by the provision for loan losses and decreased by charge-offs less recoveries. Management estimates the allowance balance required using past loan loss experience, the nature and volume of the portfolio, information about specific borrower situations and estimated collateral values, economic conditions and other factors. Allocations of the allowance may be made for specific loans, but the entire allowance is available for any loan that, in management’s judgment, should be charged off. Loan losses are charged against the allowance when management believes the uncollectibility of a loan balance is confirmed.

   

The allowance consists of specific and general components. The specific component relates to loans that are individually classified as impaired. The general component covers both classified and non-classified loans and is based on historical loss experience adjusted for current factors.

 

The general component covers non-impaired loans and is based on historical loss experience adjusted for current factors. For loans that are risk rated, the historical loss experience is determined based on the actual loss history experienced by the Company over the most recent 4 years. These loss ratios are calculated from a migration analysis of the charge offs over this period, but excludes the ratios from the most recent six month period as they are not appropriately seasoned. The loss ratios for loans designated as belonging to homogeneous pools, including smaller balance consumer loans, are calculated for a five year period and a one year period, with the lower of the two loss ratio’s representing the lower end of the reserve range and the higher calculated ratio representing the reserve percentage for the higher end of the reserve range. These actual loss experiences are supplemented with other economic factors based on the risks present for each portfolio segment. These economic factors include consideration of the following: levels of and trends in delinquencies and impaired loans; levels of and trends in charge-offs and recoveries; trends in volume and terms of loans; effects of any changes in risk selection and underwriting standards; other changes in lending policies, procedures and practices; experience, ability and depth of lending management and other relevant staff; national and local economic trends and conditions; industry conditions; and effects of changes in credit concentrations. These factors are consistent within each of the portfolio segments, which have been identified as: Commercial, residential real estate, nonresidential real estate, construction, consumer and municipal obligations.

 

The risk characteristics of each of the identified portfolio segments are as follows:

 

Commercial - Commercial loans are primarily based on the identified cash flows of the borrower and secondarily on the underlying collateral provided by the borrower. Borrowers may be subject to adverse economic conditions that can lead to decreases in product demand; increasing material or other production costs; interest rate increases that could have an adverse impact on profitability; non-payment of credit that has been extended under normal vendor terms for goods sold or services extended; interruption related to the importing or exporting of production materials or sold products.

 

Residential real estate - Residential real estate loans are secured by 1-4 family residences and are generally owner occupied, the Company generally establishes a maximum loan-to-value ratio. Home equity loans are typically secured by a subordinate interest in 1-4 family residences. These loans are subject to adverse employment conditions in the local economy leading to increased default rate; decreased market values from oversupply in a geographic area; impact to borrowers’ ability to maintain payments in the event of incremental rate increases on adjustable rate mortgages.

 

Nonresidential real estate - Non residential real estate loans are viewed primarily as cash flow loans and secondarily as loans secured by real estate. Commercial real estate lending typically involves higher loan principal amounts and the repayment of these loans is generally dependent on the successful operation of the property securing the loan or the business conducted on the property securing the loan. These loans are subject to adverse market conditions that cause a decrease in market value or lease rates; the potential for environmental impairment and the obsolescence of the location or function.

 

Construction - Construction loans are underwritten utilizing independent appraisal reviews, absorption rate analysis, lease rates and financial analysis of the developers and property owners. Construction loans are generally based on estimates of costs and value associated with the complete project. These loans are subject to adverse market conditions that cause a decrease in market value or absorption rates; the potential for environmental impairment. These loans are closely monitored by on-site inspections and are considered to have higher risks than other real estate loans.

  

Consumer - Consumer loans generally consist of loans secured by personal property or unsecured loans such as credit cards. Repayment of these loans is primarily dependent on the personal income of the borrowers, who are subject to adverse employment conditions in the local economy which may lead to higher unemployment.

 

Municipal Obligations - Municipal obligations are generally secured by specific assets or the taxing power of the municipality. These loans are subject to adverse employment conditions in the local economy and lower real estate values which can reduce the municipality’s tax base.

 

A loan is impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Company will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Loans, for which the terms have been modified resulting in a concession, and for which the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties, are considered troubled debt restructurings and classified as impaired.

 

Impairment is evaluated in total for smaller-balance loans of similar nature such as residential mortgage, consumer and credit card loans, and on an individual loan basis for other loans. Large groups of smaller balance homogeneous loans, such as consumer and residential real estate loans, are collectively evaluated for impairment, and accordingly, they are not separately identified for impairment disclosures. If a loan is impaired, a portion of the allowance is allocated so that the loan is reported, net, at the present value of estimated future cash flows using the loan’s existing rate or at the fair value of collateral if repayment is expected solely from the collateral. Troubled debt restructurings are separately identified for impairment disclosures and are measured at the present value of estimated future cash flows using the loan’s effective rate at inception. If a troubled debt restructuring is considered to be a collateral dependent loan, the loan is reported, net, at the fair value of the collateral. For troubled debt restructurings that subsequently default, the Company determines the amount of reserve in accordance with the accounting policy for the allowance for loan losses. The company’s impairment policies are consistent across all of the loan portfolio segment’s.

 

Premises and Equipment: Land is carried at cost. Premises and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Buildings and related components are depreciated using the straight-line method with useful lives ranging from 10 to 25 years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated using the straight-line method over the lesser of the useful life of the asset or the length of the lease. Furniture, fixtures and equipment are depreciated using the straight-line method with useful lives ranging from 3 to 10 years.

  

Other Real Estate: Other real estate acquired through or instead of foreclosure is initially recorded at fair value less cost to sell when acquired, establishing a new cost basis. If fair value declines subsequent to foreclosure, a valuation allowance is recorded through expense. Expenses incurred in carrying other real estate are charged to operations as incurred. A total of $5,844 and $795 of other real estate was owned on December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, and included in other assets.

 

Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) Stock: The Bank is a member of the FHLB system. Members are required to own a certain amount of stock based on the level of borrowings and other factors, and may invest in additional amounts. FHLB stock is carried at cost, classified as a restricted security and periodically evaluated for impairment based on ultimate recovery of par value. Both cash and stock dividends are reported as income.

 

Company Owned Life Insurance: The Company has purchased life insurance policies on certain key executives. Company owned life insurance is recorded at the amount that can be realized under the insurance contract at the balance sheet date, which is the cash surrender value adjusted for other charges or other amounts due that are probable at settlement.

 

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets: Goodwill resulting from business combinations prior to January 1, 2009 represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net assets of businesses acquired. Goodwill resulting from business combinations after January 1, 2009 is generally determined as the excess of the fair value of the consideration transferred plus the fair value of any non controlling interests in the acquiree, over the fair value of the net assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the acquisition date. Goodwill and intangible assets acquired in a purchase business combination and determined to have an indefinite useful life are not amortized but tested for impairment at least annually, or more frequently if events and circumtances exist that indicate that a goodwill impairment test should be performed. The Company has selected June 30 as the date to perform the annual impairment test. Intangible assets with definite useful lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives to their estimated residual values. Goodwill is the only intangible asset with an indefinite life on our balance sheet.

 

Other intangible assets consist of core deposit, acquired customer relationship, trade name and noncompete agreement intangible assets arising from whole bank, branch and asset management business acquisitions. They are initially measured at fair value and then are amortized either on the straight-line method or an accelerated method over their estimated useful lives of four to ten years.

 

Prepaid FDIC Insurance: On September 29, 2009, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) adopted an Amended Restoration Plan to allow the Deposit Insurance Fund to return to a reserve ratio of 1.15% within eight years, as mandated by statute. As part of the Amended Restoration Plan, the FDIC amended its assessment regulations to require all institutions to prepay on December 30, 2009 their estimated risk-based insurance assessments for the fourth quarter of 2009, and for all of 2010, 2011 and 2012. At that same time, institutions were also required to pay their regular quarterly assessments for the third quarter of 2009. An institution’s quarterly risk-based deposit insurance assessments thereafter would be paid from the amount the institution prepaid until that amount was exhausted or until December 31, 2014, when any amount remaining would be returned to the institution. The prepaid assessment amount was $2,908 and $4,210 on December 30, 2011 and 2010, and is included in other assets.

 

Repurchase Agreements: Substantially all repurchase agreement liabilities represent amounts advanced by various customers. Securities are pledged to cover these liabilities, which are not covered by federal deposit insurance.

   

Stock-Based Compensation: Compensation cost is recognized for stock options issued to directors and officers, based on the fair value of these awards at the date of grant. A Black-Scholes model is utilized to estimate the fair value of stock options. Compensation cost is recognized over the required service period, generally defined as the vesting period. For awards with graded vesting, compensation cost is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award.

 

Income Taxes: Income tax expense is the amount of taxes payable for the current year plus or minus the change in deferred taxes. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities, computed using enacted tax rates. Recognition of deferred tax assets is limited by the establishment of a valuation allowance unless management concludes that they are more likely than not to result in future tax benefits to the Company.

 

A tax position is recognized as a benefit only if it is “more likely than not” that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination, with a tax examination being presumed to occur. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the “more likely than not” test, no tax benefit is recorded.

 

Loan Commitments and Related Financial Instruments: Financial instruments include credit instruments, such as commitments to make loans and standby letters of credit, issued to meet customer financing needs. The face amount of these items represents the exposure to loss, before considering customer collateral or ability to repay. Such financial instruments are recorded when they are funded. Instruments, such as standby letters of credit that are considered financial guarantees are recorded at fair value.

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments: Fair values of financial instruments are estimated using relevant market information and other assumptions, as more fully disclosed in a separate note. Fair value estimates involve uncertainties and matters of significant judgment regarding interest rates, credit risk, prepayments and other factors, especially in the absence of broad markets for particular items. Changes in assumptions or in market conditions could significantly affect the estimates.

 

Loss Contingencies: Loss contingencies, including claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business, are recorded as liabilities when the likelihood of loss is probable and an amount or range of loss can be reasonably estimated. Management does not believe there are currently such matters that will have a material effect on the financial statements.

 

Comprehensive Income: Comprehensive income consists of net income and other comprehensive income. Other comprehensive income includes unrealized gains and losses on securities available for sale which are also recognized as separate components of equity.

 

Dividend Restriction: Banking regulations require the maintenance of certain capital levels and may limit the amount of dividends which may be paid by the Bank to the Company or by the Company to its shareholders. See Note 18 for further discussion.

 

Long-term Assets: These assets are reviewed for impairment when events indicate their carrying amount may not be recoverable from future undiscounted cash flows. If impaired, the assets are recorded at fair value.

 

Restrictions on Cash: Cash on hand or on deposit with the Federal Reserve Bank was required to meet regulatory reserve and clearing requirements.

   

Business Segment: Internal financial information is reported and aggregated in one line of business, banking. While the chief decision-makers monitor the revenue streams of the various products and services, the identifiable segments are not material and operations are managed and financial performance is evaluated on a Company-wide basis. Accordingly, all of the financial service operations are considered by management to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment.

 

Reclassifications: Some items in the prior year financial statements were reclassified to conform to the current presentation. Reclassifications had no material effect on the financial statements.

 

Derivative Financial Instruments: As a result of loans acquired through the Integra acquisition in the fourth quarter of 2009, the Bank initiated an interest rate protection program in which the Bank earns a fee by providing the Bank’s commercial loan customers the ability to swap from variable to fixed, or fixed to variable interest rates. Under these agreements the Bank enters into a variable or fixed rate loan agreement with its customer in addition to a swap agreement. The swap agreement effectively swaps the customer’s variable rate to a fixed rate or vice versa. The Bank then enters into a corresponding swap agreement with a third party in order to swap its exposure on the variable to fixed rate swap with the Bank’s customer. The agreements are considered stand alone derivatives and changes in the fair value of derivatives are reported in earnings as non-interest income.

 

The Bank is exposed to losses if a counterparty fails to make its payments under a contract in which the Bank is in the receiving status. In this situation, the Bank receives collateral from the counterparty for the fair market value of the derivative. Also, the Bank minimizes its credit risk by monitoring the credit standing of the counterparties. We anticipate the counterparties will be able to fully satisfy their obligations under these agreements.

 

Earnings Per Common Share: Basic earnings per common share is net income available to common shareholders divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per common share includes the dilutive effect of additional potential common shares issuable under stock options. Earnings and dividends per share are restated for all stock splits and stock dividends through the date of issuance of the financial statements.

 

Retirement Plans: Employee 401(k) and profit sharing plan expense is the amount of matching contributions. Deferred compensation and supplemental retirement plan expense allocates the benefits over years of service.

 

Adoption of New Accounting Standards: In April 2011, the FASB amended existing guidance for assisting a creditor in determining whether a restructuring is a troubled debt restructuring. The amendments clarify the guidance for a creditor’s evaluation of whether it has granted a concession and whether a debtor is experiencing financial difficulties. With regard to determining whether a concession has been granted, the ASU clarifies that creditors are precluded from using the effective interest method to determine whether a concession has been granted. In the absence of using the effective interest method, a creditor must now focus on other considerations such as the value of the underlying collateral, evaluation of other collateral or guarantees, the debtor’s ability to access other funds at market rates, interest rate increases and whether the restructuring results in a delay in payment that is insignificant. The effect of adopting this new guidance in 2011 did not have a material effect on the Company’s results of operations or financial position.

 

In May 2011, the FASB issued an amendment to achieve common fair value measurement and disclosure requirements between U.S. and International accounting principles. Overall, the guidance is consistent with existing U.S. accounting principles; however, there are some amendments that change a particular principle or requirement for measuring fair value or for disclosing information about fair value measurements. The amendments are effective for interim and annual period beginning after December 15, 2011. The Company does not expect this new guidance will have a material effect on the results of operations or financial position.

  

In June 2011, the FASB amended existing guidance and eliminated the option to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in shareholders’ equity. The amendment requires that comprehensive income be presented in either a single continuous statement or in two separate consecutive statements. The amendments in this guidance are effective as of the beginning of a fiscal reporting year, and interim periods within that year, that begins after December 15, 2011. Early adoption is permitted. The adoption of this amendment will change the presentation of the components of comprehensive income for the Company as part of the consolidated statement of shareholders’ equity.

 

In September 2011, the FASB amended existing guidance relating to goodwill impairment testing. The amendment permits an assessment of qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing these events or circumstances, it is concluded that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the two-step impairment test is unnecessary. The amendments in this guidance are effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests performed for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011. Early adoption is permitted, including for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests performed as of a date before September 15, 2011, if financial statements for the most recent annual or interim period have not yet been issued. The Company does not believe that this amendment will have a material impact on its financial statements.